Mature Stripping Tube [UPD]
The Handil field is a giant mature oil field in Indonesia. It has been producing since 1975 with current recovery factor for oil is 49% and gas is 57%. Cumulatively, oil had been produced around 855 MMstb and gas around 1.68 Tcf. Now, from this field, oil is being produced at 20,000 bopd, gas at 75 mmscfd and water at 130,000 bwpd. One of the feasible and economic ways to recover the remaining oil at this late stage of field production is by doing a Light Workover technique. This technique aims to change the well status without pulling out the existing completion. This technique is considered the optimum way to maintain the field production performance up to now. One of Light Workover technique is to do re-completion by inserting smaller completion inside existing completion. An innovative spool adapter was utilized to be able to run smaller completion and sit above existing wellhead. Hence, from three (3) depleted gas wells that were converted into oil wells, all wells are still producing and economically had been paid out the intervention cost.
mature stripping tube
ABSTRACT: We studied a sudden occurrence of moose (Alces alces) browsing twigs and stripping bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies) that coincided temporally and spatially with a moose wasting syndrome in southern Alvsborg County in southwestern Sweden from 1990 to 1992. Spruce is a low preference forage for moose across Sweden and reports on its use are limited. This study reports on the importance of spruce as moose forage and its qualitative value relative to other more commonly used moose browse species in this region. Rumen contents from moose collected in autumn contained low proportions of spruce twigs (1.5-2.3%), and only 2 animals (n = 155) had spruce bark in the rumen. Generally, there was little browsing damage on spruce, although damage was severe in local areas. Spruce contained low concentrations of macroelements (crude protein, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) and trace elements (aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc), thereby minimizing this as a possible explanation for moose browsing. We used in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) as a measure of digestibility of spruce bark and twigs, and found no differences between spruce trees that had been bark stripped by moose and a control group of undamaged specimens. In addition, average IVDMD values of 14-25% dry matter of spruce bark were considerably lower than those found for more commonly used moose browse species in Sweden. We discuss these results with respect to the potential mechanisms underlying moose bark stripping of spruce. We cannot confirm that a potential linkage between foraging on spruce and a wasting syndrome in moose exists, and suggest that further research in this area is warranted.
Norway spruce (Picea abies) has been found to rank lowest on preference lists of moose (Alces alces) in Sweden, and reports of its use as forage are limited (Cederlund et al. 1980, Bergstrom and Hjeljord 1987). Reports of occasional twig browsing and bark stripping by cervids (with the latter damages generally being more visible) have come from the southern and central regions of Sweden (Lavsund 1987). During the past decade, researchers have documented rather intensive cervid browsing, primarily by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) but also moose, red deer (Cervus elaphus), and fallow deer (C. dama), on up to 50% of newly planted and naturally regenerated spruce saplings (Bergstrom and Bergqvist 1997).
Researchers have reported moose browsing damage on spruce in other regions of Fennoscandia, including Norway (bark stripping; Furulund 1977) and Finland. In Finland, local cases of stripping on mature spruce trees occur annually, although the phenomenon is rare and little research concerning this problem has been done in either Finland, Norway (Faber and Edenius 1998), or Russia (Kuznetsov 1987). In the Republic of Estonia and other parts of the Baltic states, moose cause considerable damage to spruce (Randveer and Heikkila 1996, Faber and Edenius 1998). In North America, where moose densities are generally considerably lower than in Sweden, moose rarely browse on spruce (Picea spp.) (Murie 1934, Peterson...
Photon-counting detectors are promising candidates for use in the next generation of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners. Among the foreseen benefits are higher spatial resolution, better trade-off between noise and dose and energy discriminating capabilities. Silicon is an attractive detector material because of its low cost, mature manufacturing process and high hole mobility. However, it is sometimes overlooked for CT applications because of its low absorption efficiency and high fraction of Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that silicon is a feasible material for CT detectors by showing energy-resolved CT images acquired with an 80 kVp x-ray tube spectrum using a photon-counting silicon-strip detector with eight energy thresholds developed in our group. We use a single detector module, consisting of a linear array of 50 0.5 x 0.4 mm detector elements, to image a phantom in a table-top lab setup. The phantom consists of a plastic cylinder with circular inserts containing water, fat and aqueous solutions of calcium, iodine and gadolinium, in different concentrations. By using basis material decomposition we obtain water, calcium, iodine and gadolinium basis images and demonstrate that these basis images can be used to separate the different materials in the inserts. We also show results showing that the detector has potential for quantitative measurements of substance concentrations.
Interpretive Summary: The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SSDI), laterals buried about 12 inches deep, may have serious limitations to seed germination in drought conditions and with small shallow planted seeds, i.e., cotton. If SSDI tubing is placed at 12 inches soil depth with a 72-inch lateral spacing (alternate row middles with crop rows spaced 36 inches apart), water would need to move up and laterally over 20 inches (hypotenuse) for corn and peanut planted 2 inches deep and over 21 inches for cotton planted 0.5-inch deep. Water movement this distance can be quite challenging for seed germination especially when the soil has been tilled or in a sandy soil texture.Shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI), drip tubing buried just beneath the soil surface, has proven to be inexpensive and effective way to irrigate corn, cotton, and peanut in the. With drip tubing buried 2 inches deep, water movement to the seed would reduce the distance to just 18 inches compared with the SSDI system described above. Changing the crop row width from 36 to 30 inches would bring the crop row 3 inches closer to the drip tubing when using S3DI. However, this reducing the crop row spacing would increase seed expense and the number of drip laterals increasing the expense of the drip irrigation system. Another possible scenario would be to have narrow crop row widths but leave drip tube lateral spacing the same. For instance, reduce an existing 36-inch crop row to 30 inches spacing but leave drip tube lateral spacing at 72 inches. Tractor wheel spacing along with other wheeled equipment would not have to be changed. Harvesting equipment of combines/pickers/inverters for corn, cotton, and peanut, respectively, would not have to be adjusted. The final dimensions could be a 30-inch crop row with 42-inch middles. The water flow path to the crop rows would then be reduced to 15 inches instead of 18 inches for the normal 36-inch row with S3DI compared with 20 to 21 inches for a SSDI system. The objective of this research was to document the yield response of corn, cotton, and peanut planted at two different row spacings, two different seeding rates, on three different soil types, and two types of irrigation systems.This research was conducted at four different locations in southwest GA, USA. Tractors used in this research were GPS capable such that two row equipment (strip till) and larger (field cultivator, planters, sprayers) would match row patterns.All plots were planted with a vacuum type seeder at specified seeding rates and row spacings. In addition, all crops were planted at the recommended timing across all years and locations. Two identical vacuum planters were used, one set for the 30-inch row width and another for 36-inch row width. Strip tilled areas were typically prepared one to two weeks in advance of planting. The recommended seeding rates used for corn, cotton and peanut were 2.2, 3, and 6 seeds/ft (32,000, 43,500, and 87,000 seeds/ac), respectively, and the half-recommended rates had the planters adjusted to reduced seeding rate appropriately.Fertilizers and soil amendments (lime) were applied at recommended rates as determined by soil test for each farm and each plot. Nitrogen was applied in either two or three split application events depending on weather conditions and manpower or equipment availability to the four farms. All pesticides and fungicides were applied at recommended timing and rates determined by field scouting and manufacturer guidelines for each individual crop. Irrigation events were scheduled using either soil water potential sensors or IrrigatorPro computer program depending on location. Harvest occurred when individual crops were physiologically mature. Crop yield was determined using accepted practices for each individual crops. Crop quality was determined by USDA classifications services. Individual sites, years, crop
In pollen grains of Convallaria majalis the outer membrane of the generative cell (GC) is the inner membrane of the vegetative cell (VC). Striped projections (SP) at the cytoplasmic face of the outer membrane of the GC were revealed by chemical fixation and also by a rapid freeze-fixation and freeze-substitution. The projections, located in groups on the protruding lobes of the GC, were arranged parallel to each other and were equally spaced (40 nm apart). The length of the SP, estimated from grazing sections of GC, was 400 nm. Each projection was composed of T-shaped elements, about 35 nm high, spaced at an average distance of 25 nm. SP were observed in mature, hydrated, activated and germinated pollen grains and seemed to be associated with microtubules and microfilaments of the VC. No evidence exists yet of SP on the sperm cell membrane. Immunogold labelling with anti-myosin antibodies showed many gold particles attached preferentially to the surface of the protruding lobes of the GC in the area of the projections. These results may suggest that the SP of Convallaria GC contain myosin-like protein and play an important role in the motility of the GC during pollen tube growth. 041b061a72