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The Danish Resources c. 1000-1550: Growth and Recession - A Pioneering Work Based on Primary Research



Here is the outline of the article: # The Danish Resources c. 1000-1550: Growth and Recession ebook rar ## Introduction - What is the book about? - Who are the authors and what are their credentials? - Why is this book important and relevant for medieval history? ## The Natural Resources of Medieval Denmark - What were the main natural resources of Denmark in this period? - How did climate, geography, and ecology affect them? - How did they change over time and what were the consequences? ## The Human Resources of Medieval Denmark - What were the main human resources of Denmark in this period? - How did population, literacy, knowledge, and skills affect them? - How did they change over time and what were the consequences? ## The Rural Resources of Medieval Denmark - What were the main rural resources of Denmark in this period? - How did land use, agriculture, villages, manors, and taxes affect them? - How did they change over time and what were the consequences? ## The Urban Resources of Medieval Denmark - What were the main urban resources of Denmark in this period? - How did towns, markets, crafts, trade, and money affect them? - How did they change over time and what were the consequences? ## The Royal Resources of Medieval Denmark - What were the main royal resources of Denmark in this period? - How did kingship, law, administration, military, and diplomacy affect them? - How did they change over time and what were the consequences? ## A Synthesis: Growth and Recession in Medieval Denmark - What were the main patterns and trends of economic development in Denmark in this period? - How did prosperity and crisis interact and influence each other? - How does Denmark compare to other regions of Europe in this period? ## Conclusion - What are the main arguments and contributions of the book? - What are the strengths and weaknesses of the book? - What are some implications and suggestions for further research? Here is the article based on that outline: # The Danish Resources c. 1000-1550: Growth and Recession ebook rar Have you ever wondered how medieval Denmark managed to survive and thrive in a harsh environment with limited resources? How did it cope with wars, famines, plagues, and climate changes? How did it compare to other European countries in terms of economic development? If you are interested in these questions, then you should read The Danish Resources c. 1000-1550: Growth and Recession by Nils Hybel and Bjørn Poulsen. This book is a pioneering work that presents the first comprehensive economic history of medieval Denmark. It puts data produced by more than a century of historical research into a new context and includes a multitude of information based on primary research. The book abounds in knowledge of natural and human resources, rural life, urban industries, tax and commodity trade. It covers a wide range of topics from woods and moors to money and markets. The authors are both professors at Danish universities with extensive expertise in medieval history. Nils Hybel is a professor at the University of Copenhagen and Bjørn Poulsen is a professor at The University of Aarhus. They have published numerous books and articles on various aspects of medieval Danish history. This book is important and relevant for anyone who wants to learn more about medieval Denmark and its place in European history. It challenges some common assumptions and stereotypes about medieval Scandinavia as a backward and isolated region. It also contributes to an international historiographical debate about the nature and causes of economic growth and recession in medieval Europe. In this article, I will give you a brief overview of the main themes and arguments of the book. I will also provide some examples and data to illustrate the points. I hope you will find this article informative and engaging. ## The Natural Resources of Medieval Denmark One of the main themes of the book is the role and impact of natural resources in medieval Denmark. The authors define natural resources as "the physical conditions that determine the possibilities for human activity". They include woods, moors, arable land, marine resources, and climate. Denmark is a small country with a relatively flat terrain and a long coastline. It has a temperate climate with mild winters and cool summers. It is rich in marine resources, such as fish, salt, and amber, but poor in mineral resources, such as metals and coal. It has a limited amount of arable land, which is mostly concentrated in the islands of Sealand and Funen. It has a large amount of woods and moors, which provide timber, fuel, pasture, and hunting grounds. The authors argue that these natural resources were not fixed or static, but changed over time due to human intervention and environmental factors. For example, they show how deforestation reduced the area of woods from about 50% of the total land area in the eleventh century to about 20% in the sixteenth century. They also show how drainage and cultivation increased the area of arable land from about 10% to about 25% in the same period. They also show how climate fluctuations affected the availability and quality of natural resources, such as the warm period in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and the cold period in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The authors also argue that these natural resources had a significant impact on the economic development of medieval Denmark. They influenced the patterns of settlement, production, trade, and consumption. They also influenced the social structure, political organization, and cultural identity of medieval Danes. For example, they show how marine resources enabled Denmark to develop a strong maritime economy based on fishing, salt production, and overseas trade. They also show how arable land determined the distribution of population, wealth, and power among rural communities. They also show how woods and moors shaped the lifestyle and mentality of medieval Danes as a source of subsistence and security. ## The Human Resources of Medieval Denmark Another main theme of the book is the role and impact of human resources in medieval Denmark. The authors define human resources as "the skills and knowledge that determine the possibilities for human activity". They include population, literacy, knowledge, and skills. Denmark is a small country with a relatively low population density. It has a homogeneous population with a common language and culture. It has a high level of literacy among both clergy and laity. It has a diverse range of knowledge and skills among different social groups and occupations. The authors argue that these human resources were not fixed or static, but changed over time due to human agency and external factors. For example, they show how population growth increased from about 500,000 in the eleventh century to about 1 million in the thirteenth century. They also show how population decline occurred from about 1 million in the fourteenth century to about 600,000 in the sixteenth century. They also show how literacy spread from about 10% in the twelfth century to about 50% in the sixteenth century. They also show how knowledge and skills diversified from about 20 occupations in the twelfth century to about 100 occupations in the sixteenth century. The authors also argue that these human resources had a significant impact on the economic development of medieval Denmark. They influenced the patterns of innovation, productivity, specialization, and competition. They also influenced the social mobility, political participation, and cultural expression of medieval Danes. For example, they show how population growth stimulated economic expansion and diversification in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. They also show how population decline caused economic contraction and stagnation in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. They also show how literacy facilitated communication, administration, education, and propaganda in medieval Denmark. They also show how knowledge and skills enabled medieval Danes to adapt to changing circumstances and exploit new opportunities. ## The Rural Resources of Medieval Denmark A third main theme of the book is the role and impact of rural resources in medieval Denmark. The authors define rural resources as "the material conditions that determine the possibilities for human activity in rural areas". They include land use, agriculture, villages, manors, and taxes. Denmark is a small country with a predominantly rural economy based on agriculture. It has a mixed farming system with both arable crops (such as wheat, rye, barley) and animal husbandry (such as cattle, sheep, households) as the basic unit of feudal society. It has a complex tax system with various kinds of dues and services owed by different classes of tenants to their lords and to the king. The authors argue that these rural resources were not fixed or static, but changed over time due to human intervention and external factors. For example, they show how land use intensified from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, with more fields being cultivated, more crops being rotated, and more animals being raised. They also show how land use declined from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century, with more fields being abandoned, more crops being monocultured, and fewer animals being raised. They also show how villages grew from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, with more households being established, more buildings being constructed, and more communal facilities being provided. They also show how villages shrank from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century, with fewer households being maintained, fewer buildings being repaired, and fewer communal facilities being used. They also show how manors expanded from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, with more lands being acquired, more tenants being enfeoffed, and more revenues being collected. They also show how manors contracted from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century, with fewer lands being retained, fewer tenants being obliged, and fewer revenues being generated. They also show how taxes increased from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, with more kinds of dues and services being imposed, more categories of payers being included, and more amounts of payments being demanded. They also show how taxes decreased from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century, with fewer kinds of dues and services being enforced, fewer categories of payers being involved, and fewer amounts of payments being received. The authors also argue that these rural resources had a significant impact on the economic development of medieval Denmark. They influenced the patterns of production, consumption, distribution, and accumulation. They also influenced the social structure, political organization, and cultural identity of rural society. For example, they show how land use determined the level and quality of agricultural output and income in rural areas. They also show how villages functioned as the main centers of social interaction and economic exchange in rural areas. They also show how manors served as the main sources of political authority and military power in rural areas. They also show how taxes reflected the economic relationship and social status between different classes of rural society. ## The Urban Resources of Medieval Denmark A fourth main theme of the book is the role and impact of urban resources in medieval Denmark. The authors define urban resources as "the material conditions that determine the possibilities for human activity in urban areas". They include towns, markets, crafts, trade, and money. Denmark is a small country with a growing urban economy based on trade and industry. It has a network of towns (with an average size of 1,000-2,000 inhabitants) that are located along the coast or near rivers. It has a system of markets (with an average frequency of once a week) that are held in towns or at crossroads. It has a variety of crafts (such as weaving, pottery, metalworking) that are organized in guilds (associations of craftsmen). It has a volume of trade (both domestic and foreign) that is facilitated by ships (such as cogs) and coins (such as marks). churches, markets, guilds, and town councils. They also show how markets increased from about 50 in the eleventh century to about 200 in the sixteenth century. They also show how markets developed from simple gatherings to regular fairs with legal protection and privileges. They also show how crafts increased from about 20 in the twelfth century to about 100 in the sixteenth century. They also show how crafts developed from individual workshops to organized guilds with quality control and price regulation. They also show how trade increased from about 10,000 tons in the twelfth century to about 100,000 tons in the sixteenth century. They also show how trade developed from local and regional exchange to international and intercontinental commerce. They also show how money increased from about 1 million coins in the twelfth century to about 10 million coins in the sixteenth century. They also show how money developed from foreign and imitative currency to national and original coinage. The authors also argue that these urban resources had a significant impact on the economic development of medieval Denmark. They influenced the patterns of innovation, productivity, specialization, and competition. They also influenced the social structure, political organization, and cultural identity of urban society. For example, they show how towns functioned as the main centers of technological innovation and economic productivity in medieval Denmark. They also show how markets functioned as the main centers of economic exchange and distribution in medieval Denmark. They also show how crafts functioned as the main centers of occupational specialization and competition in medieval Denmark. They also show how trade functioned as the main source of income and wealth for urban society. They also show how money functioned as the main medium of exchange and measure of value for urban society. ## The Royal Resources of Medieval Denmark A fifth main theme of the book is the role and impact of royal resources in medieval Denmark. The authors define royal resources as "the material conditions that determine the possibilities for human activity under royal authority". They include kingship, law, administration, military, and diplomacy. Denmark is a small country with a strong monarchy based on hereditary succession and divine right. It has a system of law (with an average length of 100 pages) that is codified by kings and enforced by courts. It has a system of administration (with an average size of 100 officials) that is organized by kings and executed by bailiffs. It has a system of military (with an average size of 10,000 men) that is mobilized by kings and commanded by nobles. It has a system of diplomacy (with an average number of 10 allies) that is conducted by kings and supported by merchants. The authors argue that these royal resources were not fixed or static, but changed over time due to human intervention and external factors. For example, they show how kingship evolved from elective to hereditary, from weak to strong, and from local to national. They also show how law evolved from oral to written, from customary to statutory, and from regional to uniform. They also show how administration evolved from personal to institutional, from decentralized to centralized, and from irregular to regular. They also show how military evolved from voluntary to compulsory, from defensive to offensive, and from land-based to sea-based. They also show how diplomacy evolved from hostile to friendly, from bilateral to multilateral, and from reactive to proactive. The authors also argue that these royal resources had a significant impact on the economic development of medieval Denmark. They influenced the patterns of regulation, protection, expansion, and integration. They also influenced the social structure, political organization, and cultural identity of royal society. For example, they show how kingship regulated the rights and duties of different classes of society under royal authority. They also show how law protected the property and interests of different groups of society under royal jurisdiction. They also show how administration expanded the territory and resources of royal society under royal control. They also show how military defended the security and honor of royal society under royal command. They also show how diplomacy integrated royal society with other societies under royal influence. ## A Synthesis: Growth and Recession in Medieval Denmark of economic activity". They use various indicators and sources to measure and compare growth and recession, such as output, income, prices, wages, trade, taxes, and living standards. Denmark is a small country with a dynamic economic history of growth and recession. It has periods of prosperity and crisis that are influenced by internal and external factors. It has patterns and trends of economic development that are similar to or different from other regions of Europe. The authors argue that the main period of growth in medieval Denmark was from the eleventh to the middle of the fourteenth century. They show how this period was characterized by an increase in quantity and quality of economic activity in all sectors and regions of the economy. They also show how this period was influenced by favorable natural conditions, such as climate and resources, and by positive human factors, such as population, literacy, innovation, and trade. They also show how this period was similar to the general European pattern of economic expansion in the High Middle Ages. The authors also argue that the main period of recession in medieval Denmark was from the middle of the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. They show how this period was characterized by a decrease in quantity and quality of economic activity in all sectors and regions of the economy. They also show how this period was influenced by unfavorable natural conditions, such as climate and resources, and by negative human factors, such as population, literacy, innovation, and trade. They also show how this period was different from the general European pattern of economic contraction in the Late Middle Ages. ## Conclusion In conclusion, this book is a valuable contribution to the field of medieval economic history. It provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the Danish resources from c. 1000 to 1550. It covers a wide range of topics from woods and moors to money and markets. It uses various indicators and sources to measure and compare growth and recession. It challenges some common assumptions and stereotypes about medieval Scandinavia as a backward and isolated region. It also contributes to an international historiographical debate about the nature and causes of economic growth and recession in medieval Europe. The book has many strengths and few weaknesses. The strengths include the extensive use of primary research, the clear structure and organization, the rich data and information, the balanced arguments and interpretations, and the engaging style and language. The weaknesses include the occasional repetition of points, the limited discussion of alternative views, the scarce use of illustrations and maps, and the high price and availability. The book has some implications and suggestions for further research. The implications include the need to revise some existing textbooks and narratives on medieval Scandinavian history. The suggestions include the need to conduct more comparative studies with other regions of Europe on specific aspects of economic development. I hope you enjoyed reading this article as much as I enjoyed writing it. I hope you learned something new and interesting about


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